Going Hungry at the St. Roch Market

Published  June 2015

antigravity_vol13_issue6_Page_14_Image_0001New Orleans’ latest landmark of controversial redevelopment speaks to the crossroads at which the city has found itself, precariously situated between endemic poverty and craft cocktails. The juxtaposition of a fast- food restaurant and a high-end food court leaves many to wonder: Is there a middle ground between the dollar menu and gourmet tapas?

Built in 1875 and originally an open-air market for local seafood, St. Roch Market closed after Hurricane Katrina. Reopened in April, 13 vendors line either side of the refurbished building. Shoppers can purchase a glut of gourmet food and drink comprised of raw oysters, cold-pressed juice, baked confections, micro-roasted coffee, West-African cuisine, artisanal meats and cheeses, crepes, Korean-Creole fusion, and “upscale Southern comfort food.” One vendor sells produce.

Affordable access to basic groceries lost out to the gourmet vision of Will Donaldson and Barre Tanguis, the developers in charge of spearheading the bourgeoisie polestar. Donaldson and Tanguise are co-founders of Launch Pad, a small business incubator based in New Orleans. They’re also the duo behind Bayou Secret LLC, the city-designated master tenant of the historic building. Their model for St. Roch Market is meant to provide vendors with a setting in which to expand their business. While this could prove to be a lucrative opportunity for small business owners, there is still the question of whom exactly St. Roch Market is meant to serve.

“The entire project is based around the local demographic. We want the people in the neighborhood to be our primary customers,” Donaldson told The Advocate. The wants of the local demographic were well documented prior to the business’ opening. A 2010 survey prepared by four community organizations indicated that residents wanted a market, citing, “a consensus among St. Claude Avenue corridor community residents that the St. Roch Market should be restored as a source of fresh food, with highest preference given to local produce and seafood.” Additionally, a 2013 Times-Picayune article stated the requests of residents clearly in its headline: “St. Roch Market Should Be Affordable And Accessible, Residents Say.”

The local demographic hoping for an unpretentious place to purchase groceries have been disgracefully shortchanged by small plates. The Eighth Ward’s new fancy food court is about as much of an affordable market as Hank’s is a wine bar and bistro. The addition of the business to the St. Claude corridor offers nothing to those whose sustenance depends on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Hot, prepared foods are unavailable for purchase with a SNAP card. More importantly, St. Roch Market doesn’t accept food stamps for the small amount of groceries they carry. There’s little question as to whom Mayor Landrieu was addressing when he proclaimed at the business’ ribbon cutting ceremony, “This is your community center. This is your neighborhood.”

It’s not that people are resistant to progress, it’s that they don’t want exploitation to be a part of the process. It shouldn’t be surprising for a business operating like a case-study for insolent redevelopment to get its windows smashed out.

Three weeks later, St. Roch Market was defaced by a small group of vandals. Surveillance footage released after the incident documented the covert late- night operation—seven individuals dressed in all black, faces concealed, methodically moving around the building while spraying the façade with bright-pink paint shot from squirt guns. Scrawled on the brick were the phrases “Fuck Yuppies” and “Yuppie=Bad.” As a finishing touch, the windows were shattered via hammer.

The property damage became a prominent media affair, dominating local news the following day. A WWL feature showed Mayor Landrieu surveying the damage which he referred to as “a damn shame.” A camera shot of $4 cinnamon rolls followed, then an image of a smashed window, and then the Mayor once more. “This is not gentrification,” he said.

Arguably, gentrification is a word which has been overused in recent years, casually applied as an easy explanation to exceedingly complex issues. While definitions of gentrification vary, any dictionary could ascertain that St. Roch Market is in fact a textbook example of the term—a clear illustration of urban renewal typified by the arrival of affluent people into poor areas, transforming neighborhoods to meet middle-class standards and increasing the cost of living, inevitably displacing the underprivileged.

The most recent Census data lists that 40% of the St. Roch neighborhood lives in poverty. 55% of occupied housing units in the St. Roch Neighborhood are rented. 74% of the renters spend 30% or more of their income on housing. The rental market of the St. Roch neighborhood, now being referred to as “Silicon Alley” in various listings, presents harrowing options. The asking price of a three bedroom advertised as being in a “quiet neighborhood, near St. Roch Market” is $2,900. A one bedroom listing, also touting its proximity to the new business, is listed at $1,900.

The St. Roch neighborhood has become an unruly real-estate market. Examining recent Zillow.com listings of for-sale properties listed since the end of April reveal skyrocketing prices over a relatively short period of time. The most moderate increase is a four bedroom on Arts Street listed at $105,000, an uptick of more than 200% from its 2014 sale price. A three bedroom on Mandeville Street, listed at $67,500, is up roughly 350% from its 2008 sale price. A two bedroom on the same street is listed at $229,000, an increase of more than 500% from its 2010 sale price. The most startling escalation can be found on Spain Street, where a four bedroom home sold in 2012 for $17,500 is now on the market for $334,900, an increase greater than 1800%.

To address the viability of finding affordable housing in this increasingly expensive area, consider that the most recent Census data lists the average household income for the St. Roch neighborhood at less than $30,000. That St. Roch Market is more likely to increase property values than alleviate food insecurity in a neighborhood with a large number of renters and a high level of poverty is problematic, especially considering that the source of funding for the project has been fulfilled in large-part by federal dollars intended for recovery of low-income areas.

The New Orleans Building Corporation (NOBC)—a city agency overseeing city- owned properties including the Union Passenger Terminal, the World Trade Center, and several miles of riverfront property including Crescent Park— used 3.6 million recovery dollars to renovate the storm-damaged building. $600,000 was provided by FEMA. $3.1 million was provided by HUD in the form of Disaster Community Development Block Grants specifically designated to “help cities, counties, and States recover from Presidentially declared disasters, especially in low- income areas.” According to HUD’s website, “not less than 70% of CDBG funds must be used for activities that benefit low- and moderate-income persons.” Instead, NOBC applied public money to subsidize a private business. St. Roch Market being upscale and unaffordable further divorces the recovery dollars from their intended purpose. This paradigm of urban renewal prices-out underprivileged people with the very funds reserved for their neighborhood’s recovery. In reality, this isn’t recovery as much as it is systematic restructuring. Bayou Secret LLC, NOBC’s tenant, is the city’s accomplice in a multimillion-dollar example of disaster capitalism.

At the heart of the matter, St. Roch Market is a project being carried out at the expense of low-income people. It’s more in the business of changing the neighborhood it’s in than serving it in its present form.

New Orleans has the second highest rate of income inequality in the U.S. One in every three children in the city lives in poverty. An Advocate story with the headline “Vandalization Of New St. Roch Market Reflects Community’s Dissatisfaction, Disappointment In Finished Product, Residents Say” discloses a communal sentiment of letdown. In the article, City Councilwoman Latoya Cantrell said, “The market is great, but when I went there it was bittersweet, because I could feel that the community could see it as: This is great but it wasn’t created for me.”

Urban renewal doesn’t have to be socially irresponsible. Opposition to St. Roch Market isn’t necessarily a reflection of people’s reluctance to change. It’s not that people are resistant to progress, it’s that they don’t want exploitation to be a part of the process. All things considered, it shouldn’t be surprising for a business operating like a case-study for insolent redevelopment to get its windows smashed out.

Whether Donaldson and Tanguis choose to modify Bayou Secret’s model is uncertain. “We’re getting a lot of feedback,” Tanguis told WGNO. “So we’re going to be very responsive to the neighborhood about what they want and need in the market.” Despite this statement, if the objective of St. Roch Market is to yield profits, there is no reason for the business to reform as long as it’s commercially successful. Donaldson and Tanguise proudly position themselves in the entrepreneurial sphere. Profit is their holy grail. In an article regarding the opening of St. Roch Market, Donaldson told T Magazine, “The market gives everyone an all-access pass to the secrets of New Orleans.” Such pronounced thoughtlessness may prove to epitomize St. Roch Market.

What’s occurring in St. Roch is that a desirable neighborhood is being emptied of its low-income residents through a partnership between city government and private developers with a shared interest in catering to a more profitable clientele. The more than one-third of St. Roch residents who live in poverty aren’t the target audience for profit-oriented entrepreneurs’ source of revenue. With the methodical dismantling of the St. Roch neighborhood, a wealthier group is able to move in and advance a process of consumer-based social transformation. The city is facilitating gentrification through strategic spending to increase real-estate values and the tax-base. The additional monies flowing to the city will inevitably find their way into infrastructure catering to New Orleans’ primary source of income: tourists.

The annexation of the historic St. Roch neighborhood by the wealthy could culminate in the area becoming a full-blown tourist destination. If the RTA ever comes up with the funding to extend the North Rampart Street/St. Claude Avenue streetcar past Elysian Fields, visitors to New Orleans will empty out of an anachronistic mode of transportation into what will be a very different neighborhood than what most New Orleanians now know. A version of the city will be touted as authentic, but the locals will know better. In New Orleans, money eats culture and excretes simulacra.

At the heart of the matter, St. Roch Market is a project being carried out at the expense of low-income people. It’s more in the business of changing the neighborhood it’s in than serving it in its present form. The project represents food commoditization so extreme that it not only neglects a local population, it facilitates its displacement. It stands for infrastructure disguised as an asset to the underprivileged members of the community it’s simultaneously disregarding—a slap in the face to everyone who has been waiting nearly ten years for a decent place to purchase basic groceries.

43 comments about Going Hungry at the St. Roch Market

  • Interesting piece–but wait until the Jack & Jake’s Market opens in Central City–crystal chandeliers and French antiques supported by a million dollars from the city to address “food deserts.” Can’t wait to shop for $40/pound cheeses–a great “food access” project. J&J will make Balducci’s look like Sav a Lot, and the public is helping pay for it with all kinds of subsidies. What long-time members of a community want and need is completely disregarded when there’s money to be made, and “artisan” local products can be fawned over by people with sick amounts of money.

  • You’ve captured, at least indirectly, precisely my own thoughts on this and similar situations. It is not change itself, not development inherently, that is the problem. This is not the main protest, though of course there are those that don’t want change (and there will be future ones saying the same thing when the shoe is on the other foot…but I digress…)

    It isn’t development itself, it’s the pace of and source of the change. The pace purposefully undermines the coping mechanisms of the free market and of government that are meant to balance such things. And the source is increasingly outside the community (and colluding with those meant to represent the community). It is not, therefore, an investment strategy, but rather an extraction strategy. They are mining wealth at a furious pace with the blessings of those people, in the private or public sphere, who are charged with keeping such short-sighted operations from bringing the whole thing to ruin.

  • Despite its limited options for conventional groceries, fresh produce and basic bulk foods are available just across the street at the Food Co-op. It is owned by the community so profits stay in the community, board meetings are public, etc. Also there was no public money involved in the opening, it was all member-owner investment, member-owner loans, and credit union loans, which has unfortunately made it expensive but prices should stabilize once most of the debt has been settled.

    • Until then, however, the poor in the neighborhood do not have access to groceries. I lived in the Marigny as a single mother and grad student, and I would occasionally shop at the Food Co-Op.

      • Circle Foods is within walking distance to the neighborhood. There is also Save-a-lot and Dollar General Market within walking distance as well. You can’t expect the city to subsidize fresh food and staples. They can’t even pay the firefighters.

        • Circle Foods is within walking distance? It’s all the way over at Claiborne & St Bernard!! And, yes, Save-A-Lot is walking distance and is an asset to the neighborhood, but it’s small, and the point of the government subsidizing this renovation was to provide MORE affordable fresh food options to the residents of this neighborhood. “If you don’t like it, go to Save-A-Lot” is an astounding answer to the criticism that the St. Roch Market fails to serve its community, as intended by the government providing the millions for the renovation.

          • Circle Foods is a mile from the St. Roch Market. That is plenty walkable and even more walkable from some parts of St. Roch than the St. Roch Market itself. And I never said if you don’t like it go to Save-A-Lot. I simply said it was an option.

      • Christopher, read the comment before replying. I explained why the Food Co-op is currently expensive, unfortunate as it is. Hopefully once the debt burden has been reduced it will be cheaper. All the debt is to the memer-owners or local credit unions, making it fully community owned, debt and all. Not sure what is so funny about that.

        • As someone who put $100 into the co-op at start up, I have to say it’s highly unlikely they’ll ever make money due to their management & business model. There’s just not enough yuppie vegans in the neighborhood for them. Yet.

  • I live in the rapidly changing Freret Street area. There is a vacant lot just across the street from my corner at Upperline and Freret, the perfect spot for a small grocery. I mentioned it to a developer and his response was no one he had spoken with wanted to sink a million bucks into a business with such a low profit margin. We do have a mercado down the street, but the fresh food options there are limited. How can it be so tough to open a green grocer with a small butcher counter? Either here or in the Marigny? Aren’t there subsidies to facilitate these stores?

  • It would appear that the refusal to accept SNAP for the handful of items that do qualify is the plainest and most damning evidence that the St Roch Market was never intended for the entire community, just the more economically stable residents of the neighborhood. Not accepting Snap payments is no different than putting up a sign stating “poor people are not welcome”.

  • This article is so unnecessarily negative and mean spirited toward the local vendors who are putting forth a creative, affordable and amazingly modern take on the historic Market. Conveniently, the author’s derisive list of the various vendors leaves out Elysian Seafood, which sells fresh seafood at good prices 7 days a week and has a weekly boil. Also, the produce at St. Roch Forage is great and cheap. How disheartening it must be for these nice, hard working vendors who just opened to read something like this that spreads disinformation and is not true! There is a grocery store that sells basic staples and accepts SNAP literally across the street. There is also a produce and seafood market 1 mile away at the French Market. There is also Circle Foods grocery store 1 mile away. What exactly is the author wishing would have opened here? The false critique that there isn’t seafood anymore really perplexes me. How much seafood are people in this neighborhood demanding?? I live in this neighborhood and I think it is almost comical how hard the author tries to find something wrong with this great spot.

    • You sound like money. Why sympathize these businesses? They’ll thrive and continue encouraging a particular demographic (yuppies) to move to the area. I’m white and young but realize the impact of my presence in a neighborhood as far as what developers will cater to. Community means resources, shopping centers should be based on the needs of the immediate people. Why can’t they have what they asked for? Surely the only folks stoked on $10 cold press are the recent initiates to the area. Also, SNAP being accepted across the street and other groceries a mile away literally reiterate / echo sentiments of residents saying this place was literally NOT made for them. You could try listening to those being subjugated. You could maybe, for one minute, imagine the other side. What it’d be like to feel alienated from a space you grew up near, hoping it’d open again, then finding you can’t afford the commodities. You can continue blissfully patronizing this business. Just beware there are bigger things at play here.

      • 56 percent population loss in St. Roch between 2000 and 2010. Do you expect the neighborhood to continue to remain blighted? There are 4 blighted unoccupied houses on my block alone and I live 3 blocks from the market. Also, St. Roch has been a neighborhood that has gone through vast changes throughout the last 60-70 years. Population and demographic shifts all over the place. Your comment reads like pure white guilt. I know for a fact that there are many of my neighbors that have been in St. Roch for a long time, some 30+ years, that are excited to see their property values increase, to see less blight, and to feel safer in their own neighborhood. The biggest group that are being subjugated are renters, all renters. And while I feel for those who will see rising rents and might have to move to another neighborhood, that is the risk that comes with renting in a city with no rent control in place. Instead of blaming people that are moving to the neighborhood, why don’t we look to the city council and demand that they get off their asses and put into place safeguards for affordable housing throughout the city. They are sitting on a ton of HANO scatter sites that could be sold off for a reduce price with the agreement that some percentage of the property would be reserved for affordable housing.

      • What a silly comment about sounding like money. Also-you are trying too hard to make the stuff they sell seem ridiculous. If you don’t want the cold press and you want produce, then just buy that. The prices for it are good. It sounds like there is some white guilt happening here. If you are not the person on SNAP being shut out then why are you complaining? I understand this is not the absolute cheapest place ever and is not intended to serve the poorest of the poor of the neighborhood- but what would that be?? A walmart? That would be terrible.

        I sympathize with the vendors because they are nice and they are part of the community too! Just because this building is beautifully designed doesn’t mean that someone who is poor wouldn’t like it. There is something there that everyone could afford. You can’t expect one market to solve all the economic problems in this area.

        • The prices for the produce are good? Are you kidding me??? The fruit is $1 for a single non-organic apple. I can get better prices for fresh fruit at a coffeehouse. There is nothing affordable at this market, nothing that I’ve seen anyway. And, having been given over 3 MILLION dollars in taxpayers’ money to help low-income people, you would think they could at the very least make sure 10% or so of the market sold affordable produce.

          • That doesn’t sound like a bad price unless you are buying in bulk. And you are supporting local farmers. This place is SO much better than some grocery store. It brings so much to the neighborhood, I cannot believe people are being so awful to these new businesses! It is insane to me to see this beautiful building and this new (to New Orleans) concept and to immediately try to find a reason to hate it.

          • Not sure where you normally shop but apples at my local Rouses’s are $1.69 – $1.99 per pound and an apple weighs an average of 8-9 ounces so $1.00 seems pretty market rate to me……

      • So what’s the answer? Let the hipsters burn it down next time? Let it go back to being a blighted collapsing building, and insist that the next owner (if there is one) be an anarchist who will offer damaged vegetables for free to all the smelly credit-card trust-fund crusties begging for weed money on the corner of St. Claude and Elysian Fields? “You sound like money” is the bleat of a college student socialist who probably moved here from out of state three months ago and got resentful because she can’t get an apartment in the ever-so-chic run down neighborhood with just enough danger of mugging or killing to be exciting and worry the folks back home.

        • Very well stated. I would be willing to bet that those seven vandals were all young, white, Socialist college students; heck, it would not shock me to learn that they were not even employed, but simply living off of money from their parents.

      • Ha! Do people spend that much on car notes? If you could see the beat up car I drive, currently lacking a bumper, you would have a good laugh at that statement. I know I am.

  • All the clever wording doesn’t disguise this article’s pandering to the poor artists and other ‘been here my whole life’ common folk. Money talks and when enough people with it decide on developing neighborhoods, it’s going to happen. Those old NAVY shipyards in the bywater are going to become a port for Disney cruise ships. That whole river front will be condos. The people who will live there will afford to live there. The poor artistic folk will move on somewhere else and the cycle will begin again.

    This is also happening in Central City along Oretha Castle Haley but no one cares because Central City is practically a warzone and not as many white kids have their drum circles there.

  • Imagine how much the seafood and produce would have cost if the city went with an actual market. There is no way the food would have been affordable with the overhead the city is charging due to the renovations. An actual grocery was not a profitable business model for that building and you can’t expect a cash strapped city to not try and make it a profitable venture. The city would have had to subsidize the food cost in order to make it actually affordable.

  • “New Orleans has the second highest rate of income inequality in the U.S” This is not surprising since there are no real JOBS in New Orleans and a vast majority of the young and educated who could be added to the City’s tax base must leave and go to Houston, Dallas Atlanta or Washington D.C. to earn a decent living. Of course this leaves the poor and disadvantaged who don’t pay a lot of taxes left. Hurricane Katrina exacerbated the situation by having a lot of professional people, Doctors, Attorneys, etc move never to return because there were no clientele. Mayor Landrieu (and Governor Jindal) if you really want to help this City flourish, bring JOBS and Corporations.

  • This market is not big enough to offer the kind of inexpensive groceries that the author is suggesting. It’s significantly smaller than Circle Foods, for instance. Also, there is a regular grocery store (Robert’s) being planned right down the street. The author needs to do some basic research. There is no way you would get a good, cheap selection of groceries in this location.

  • Whether or not you support St. Roch Market, it is exploiting the direct low-income communities. That’s the whole point of this article: money that was supposedly dedicated to helping low-income communities was instead used to build an establishment for upper-middle class people, all while shaping the narrative that the market is bolstering those low-income communities. This is the problem. It’s not about whether YOU think the place is “affordable” in your own completely relative terms.

    • Well said. That is it, exactly. While some people may think that $4/pound for apples is “affordable”, the people the government gave this money in order to help do not. There were several bidders for this project, including a neighborhood-based one that had a good plan for affordable groceries subsidized by more expensive specialty food. The argument that it is impossible to do this in a way that would help low-income people is bogus. If you can’t do it in a way that helps low-income communities, then don’t take those federal dollars — taxpayers didn’t give that money to be used so upper middle class customers can sip high-priced juice– that money is for the stated purpose of helping low-income communities.

  • Allowing afluent Caucasian’s to make decisions about poor Black neighborhoods …is like allowing oil companies to make decisions about the environment. Greedy, self serving and corrupt. The super inflated real estate prices close to the market bear that out.

    Numbers don’t lie…politicians can’t tell the truth, and corporations will exploit anything for a profit.

  • Ending poverty is the only solution to solve this situation.
    A correction: Food desert does not apply to this area. Save-a-Lot is a short walk away and they accept SNAP; as does Circle Foods, Family Dollar, General Dollar, and the Food Co-op along with many small ‘convenience’ stores nearby . So we’re back to my opening statement… Solving poverty.
    Solution? ‘Employment with a livable wage’ for those who can work, SNAP for those unable to work or work for a lower than livable wage (certainly today’s minimum wage is NON- livable!)
    The St. Roch Market is a great business incubator. A dozen-plus normal (not rich) community members have put significant personal effort and $$ to open in this business incubator. And they have employed a good number of locals at a livable wage. And any profits will be going to these community members, not to some corporate or suburban non-community member. By these criteria Rally’s and/or McDonalds are the greater vilains here. Where’s the outrage for them?
    Yes tax money went in to renovate this historic but abandoned (10 years!) building. The building is beautifully restored; many neighbors are working in it, entrepreneurs are taking a big step toward becoming business owners. And white privileged out-of-town vandals can bemoan the injustice of it all. Boo hoo!
    Economic Displacement (not gentrification) is the greater issue here, not a food court for wage earners like me.

  • 1. If I hear seafood market one more time I’m gonna scream. There is seafood roughly every 3 blocks in this neighborhood!
    2. A survey does not a direct democracy make. The elected officials asked for input and used it in the development of an economically profitable venture. You should be thanking them for all the jobs it brought and opportunities to incubate new businesses that could help repopulate some of the other vacant businesses all along St.Claude.
    3. The vandals who likely don’t even pay taxes are the same demographic that this author rejects along with the Market. It is likely that the author belongs to this same demographic (outsider, yuppie, privileged, etc).

    I am so sick of losing sleep and wasting energy on this issue. This article is racist, nihilist, and entirely reactionary. There is no such thing as a poverty paradise so let’s just let the neighborhood develop and prosper instead of keeping the ghetto ghetto.

    • I think there’s a typo in there– correction: “The elected officials asked for input and ignored it in the development of an economically profitable venture.” Ignoring surveys and all other neighbor input a direct democracy does prevent. What the neighborhood wanted was clear: affordable groceries. At least half the market should be selling affordable groceries. That can be subsidized by $8 juice and craft cocktails– nothing wrong with any of those vendors in there, more power to them– but at least half the market should be set aside for affordable groceries.

  • Far from journalism, but I guess that’s the standard we’ve
    come to expect these days. My problem with this article is that’s its predictable
    negativity is backed up with so much misinformation that perhaps the choir will
    believe it to be filled with truth. A brief review of photographic history may
    reveal to the author how close to the past the market’s atmosphere actually is,
    especially concerning its internal layout and proximity to the streetcar line,
    built along St. Claude in the 1940’s. When it comes to “keeping the
    neighborhood,” it certainly depends on what era you are talking about, and it
    seems that only the latest voices of “neighbors” are heard due to the volume of
    their entitlement mindset. The article says nothing about job creation, and
    paints profit as if it’s unnecessary for sustainability. Perhaps the most
    accurate point the author makes is that indeed 7 masked vandals made their
    point, albeit a quite unartistic one by neighborhood standards. The interesting
    thing is that most news articles mention 6 or fewer, so this level of journalistic
    accuracy raises another question about the author’s knowledge of who that 7th
    vandal may be.

  • I don’t believe when the neighborhood residents envisioned the new ” St Rock Market”; that they thought of a yuppie mart catering to the yuppies taking over the neighborhood. In their mind a new fish market would return with perhaps the additions of a seafood eatery and small area to buy fish fry and or condiments. Maybe, stopping by for a cup of coffee and chat with a neighbor.The overpriced products are not wanted by the original residents and much grumbling is arising to no avail. Its happening all over the city. Gentrificaion is here. New Orleans is Not a ” CHOCOLATE CITY “, Nagin was wrong. Get used to what’s happening, it’s here.

  • Did anyone read the article? We are discussing the St. Roch market, not markets that are soon to be developed. You are just confirming the fact that St. Roch was not developed to cater to the residents of the community, as it was intended to do so. No one is acknowledging the true crime here. “NOBC applied PUBLIC money to subsidize a PRIVATE business. St. Roch Market being upscale and unaffordable further divorces the recovery dollars from their INTENDED PURPOSE. This paradigm of urban renewal prices-out underprivileged people with the very funds reserved for their neighborhood’s recovery.”

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